Tinnitus is the perception of noise like hissing, humming, ringing or sound of whistling, or some peoples have different perception sound like ticking, clicking, roaring within the human ears, these noises were audible into ears even though no extrinsic noise comes into ears. Although, the origin of the name, noise sound just one of the many voices might be assumed by people.
Tinnitus is commonly a personal perception phenomenon, specified that it cannot be measured objectively different by one person to another person. The people who tinnitus suffer is often assessed clinically on a simple scale from mild up to worst case according to the constraints imposed, such as sleep disturbance, quiet activities, and daily activities.
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BASIC CONCEPTS OF DISEASE
Physiology and Anatomy of the Ear
The ears are grouped into three sections, namely the outer ear, middle ear and inner ear.
A. The outer ear:
The outer ear is the most external part of the ear. The outer ear consists of the earlobe or pinna, liang ear or external auditory meatus, and the eardrum or tympanic membrane. Earlobe includes cartilage and skin elastin.
The function of the ear is to help direct sound into the ear canal and finally toward the eardrum. The most important part that has the function to capture the sound is ear canal; this is because the outer ear has a very complex design. This channel is the result of the composition of bone and cartilage are coated thin skin.
The shape of the ear canal is like the letter S, with a cartilaginous skeleton of the outer third and two-thirds of the bone. The length of the ear canal is approximately 2.5 – 3 cm.
In the ear canal, there are many glands that produce a waxy substance called earwax or cerumen. Only part of the channel has hair that can produce a bit of earwax. At the end of the channel, the sound will be forwarded to the middle ear by the eardrum.
B. The middle ear:
The middle ear is a room that has the shape of a cube. Its content includes the eardrum, 3 ossicular (malleus, incus, and stapes). Mouth of the Eustachian tube is also located in the middle ear. Eardrum will receive sound vibrations which would then relay to the hearing bones. Each ossicular will deliver vibrations to the next bone. Stapes bone which is the smallest bone in the body transmits vibrations to the cochlea.
Under normal circumstances, the middle ear and the auditory canal will be filled with air. Not like on the outside, the air in the middle ear is not associated with the air outside the body. Eustachian duct connects the middle ear space to the back of the pharynx. In ordinary circumstances, the relationship Eustachian canal and middle ear closed and open at the time of chew and yawn.
C. The Inner Ear:
There are parts of the inner ear is a maze osea, namely a series of cavities in the bone periosteum coated epelipis containing perilymph fluid and labyrinth membranasea, which is located deeper and have endolymph fluid. In front, there is a cochlear labyrinth.
The cross section of the cochlea is divided into three parts, namely vestibuli scale, medium-scale, and scale timpani. The base of the scale vestibuli related to the stapes bone through a casement window webbed called oval, while the tympanic scale associated with middle ear through the round aperture.
At the top of the scale of the media surrounded by a membrane or membrane of Reissner vestibular and bottom surrounded by the basilar membrane. At the top of the basilar membrane are corti organ which has the function to change the sound vibrations into impulses. Corti organ composed of hair cells and cell backer.